India’s resilience of exports has increased significantly in the post COVID-19 years. The growth of exports during 2021 and 2022 at 20 per cent and 9.7 per cent, respectively was the highest among the top 20 leading exporters, said a research report.
Kerala has recently grappled with a concerning outbreak of Nipah virus, with four confirmed cases and two unfortunate fatalities, according to the state’s health minister, Veena George. This marks the fourth occurrence of the Nipah virus in Kerala since 2018. Kerala had previously experienced a surge in COVID-19 cases, making it crucial for us to understand the distinctions between the corona virus and the Nipah virus.
1. Virus Family and Type:
Coronaviruses, categorized under the Coronaviridae family, are RNA viruses encompassing a broad spectrum of strains. Some result in common colds, such as HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63, while others, notably COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS (SARS-CoV), lead to severe diseases.
In contrast, the Nipah virus belongs to the Paramyxoviridae family and is classified as a Henipavirus, occupying a distinct genus separate from coronaviruses.
Coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses, meaning they initially emerge in animals before occasionally making the jump to humans. For instance, COVID-19 is believed to have originated from a seafood market in Wuhan, China, where animal-to-human transmission occurred.
The Nipah virus is also zoonotic but predominantly originates in fruit bats (flying foxes), potentially reaching humans through intermediary hosts like pigs or directly from bats. Notable outbreaks have been reported in Southeast Asia and Bangladesh.
COVID-19 typically presents with common symptoms like fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, and alterations in taste or smell. Severe cases can progress to pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
Nipah virus infections encompass symptoms such as fever, headache, dizziness, vomiting, and respiratory complications. In severe instances, it may advance to encephalitis (brain inflammation) and is associated with a high fatality rate.
COVID-19 predominantly spreads through respiratory droplets released during coughing, sneezing, or talking. Additionally, it can transmit through contact with contaminated surfaces and subsequent facial touching.
The Nipah virus, unlike corona, may transmit through direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or beverages, or close interaction with infected individuals. Human-to-human transmission has been documented in Nipah virus outbreaks.
5. Fatality Rate:
The fatality rate of COVID-19 varies across regions and populations but generally remains lower than that of the Nipah virus. Nevertheless, due to its widespread transmission, COVID-19 has resulted in a significant global death toll.
The Nipah virus boasts a higher fatality rate, often exceeding 50% during outbreaks, earning its reputation as a more lethal virus.
Despite both the coronavirus and the Nipah virus posing potential threats as infectious diseases, they markedly differ in terms of their viral families, origins, symptoms, modes of transmission, and fatality rates. COVID-19, stemming from the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has garnered international attention due to its global impact, whereas Nipah virus outbreaks have been more localized but associated with graver consequences in terms of mortality rates.