Pakistan has been using terror proxies to create trouble in the Valley for decades.
The best thing that happened after the devastating Second World War which claimed 85 million lives and caused untold destruction and suffering in Western Europe, Northern Africa, the Middle East, Russia, Japan and South East Asia, had been that 50 nations met at a Conference in San Francisco on 25 April 1945 to draft a UN Charter resolving to create an effective institution called the United Nations Organization (UN) with a view to ending wars forever from the face the Earth and establish permanent peace among nations. The UN Charter, perhaps the most noble, powerful and comprehensive international agreement document was adopted on 25 June 1945 by 51 nations and took effect from 24 October 1945. As of 2023, 193 nations, almost all countries of the world, have become members of the United Nations.
Pioneered by British economist John Maynard Keynes and Harry Dexter White of the US Treasury, another conference of great importance, ‘The United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference’ was held at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, USA between 1 and 22 July 1944, in which 730 delegates from 44 Allied nations deliberated on the post-war structure of international economic cooperation.
Agreements were signed, after legislative ratification by the member governments, for the establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank for the Reconstruction and Development (IBRD or the World Bank or the World Bank Group), headquartered at Washington DC, with the objectives of ensuring monetary stability in the member countries and provide funds for the reconstruction and development of the war-torn world.
Initially, the UNO consisted of six organs ~ the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, The Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the Secretariat and two Specialized Agencies ~ the IMF and the World Bank. Gradually, the UN System became a mammoth organization and the largest bureaucracy in the world with a myriad of specialised agencies, a large number of autonomous institutions, Funds, Programmes, Research and Training Institutes and their subsidiary bodies, a plethora of Committees and Inter-Governmental Organizations embracing all aspects of human life and having establishments all over the planet.
Some of the UN’s major agencies and autonomous bodies are: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO-Rome), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO-Montreal), International Labour Organization (ILO-Geneva), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA- Geneva), International Maritime Organization (IMO-London), International Monetary Fund (IMF–Washington DC), International Telecommunications Union (ITCU- Geneva), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO–Paris), United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO-Vienna), United Nations University (UNU-Tokyo), Universal Postal Union (UPU-Bern ), World Bank Group (World Bank–Washington DC), World Health Organization (WHO-Geneva), World Trade Organization ( WTO-Geneva). World Tourism Organization (UNWTO–Madrid), World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO–Geneva), World Meteorological Organization (WMO–Geneva), United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF-New York City), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP–Nairobi), United Nations Human Settlements Program (UN-HABITAT–Nairobi), United Nations Development Program (UNDP–New York City), and World Food Program ( WFPRome). In addition, a number of multilateral organizations like the Human Rights Council, UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), UN Council of Counter-Terrorism, Interpol etc. function within the UN System.
But at the heart of the system lies the Security Council (UNSC) entrusted with the task of ensuring peace and security in the world and render war a thing of the past. Learning a bitter lesson from the failure of the League of Nations, the framers of the UN Charter sought to constitute an empowered, effective, transparent and fool-proof Security Council with 15 member nations including five permanent members. The Big Five were the United States, United Kingdom, USSR (now Russia), France and China ~ who were accorded the veto power, which meant that no decision could be taken and no resolution could be passed if any one of the permanent members disagreed with it even though the rest of the Council agreed. A Security Council resolution requires approval of 9 members (out of 15) including concurrence of the Big Five.
This procedure made adoption of a bi-partisan decision almost an impossibility as the Big Five would never agree to any resolution which would even remotely go against their national interest. The assignment of overriding powers to the five had been done with good intentions because in serious matters like war and peace involving various nations, it was essential to have the concurrence of the big powers who had fought and won the war.
As it happens, all good intentions go wrong, and the big five succeeded in creating a monopolistic situation where nobody else could enter. Incidentally, injustice was done to India vis-a-vis China because at that time united India being equal or more populous and far more advanced economically and educationally than China had a greater claim to be a permanent member of the Security Council. Here again, the British conspiracy was at play ~ by 1946, the British Government had already decided to divide India and create Pakistan.
The primacy of the Security Council in the UN System and making it the ‘jewel in the crown’ is amply demonstrated by the fact that as many as seven Chapters and 54 Articles (out of 29 Chapters and 111 Articles) of the UN Charter are devoted to the Security Council making it the prime mover and custodian of International affairs. Article 1 of the UN Charter says:
“The Purposes of the United Nations are:
- To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in conformity with the principles of justice and inter-national law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of the peace
- To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
- To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems of an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
- To be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of these common ends.”
Another landmark UN document, as important as the UN Charter, unanimously adopted by the General Assembly had been the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 1948 which says:
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1)
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it is independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. (Article 2).
The UDHR is applicable to all the nation-States, their governments, peoples and civil society. All 193 UN members are duty-bound to observe and act in accordance with the human rights principles set forth in UDHR. Unfortunately, except creating an institution of Human Rights Commission at the international and national levels, UDHR principles are followed more in breach than observance. Had the national governments, civil society and the citizens of the world implemented UDHR principles in true spirit, there would have been no conflict, war or genocide in the world.
(To Be Continued)
The writer is a former Dy. Comptroller & Auditor General of India and a former Ombudsman of Reserve Bank of India. He is also a writer of several books and can be reached at email@example.com